php+mysql+nginx在linux上的環境部署

一直在linux上鼓搗,還沒有完整在linux下配置過nginx伺服器環境部署呢,這幾天沒什麼事就部署瞭一下,遇到的問題也很多,現在把我的環境部署文檔發出瞭,有什麼問題大傢可以一起討論一下,希望大傢采用後遇到問題多多溝通。

|| 安裝所需各種依賴包

sudo -s
LANG=C
yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ autoconf libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel e2fsprogs e2fsprogs-devel
krb5 krb5-devel libidn libidn-devel openssl openssl-devel openldap openldap-devel nss_ldap openldap-clients openldap-servers

1、編譯安裝PHP 5.2.14所需的支持庫:
tar zxvf libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.13.1/
./configure –prefix=/usr/local
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
./configure
make
make install
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure –enable-ltdl-install
make
make install
cd ../../

tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9.9/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1
ln -s /usr/local/bin/libmcrypt-config /usr/bin/libmcrypt-config

tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.8/
/sbin/ldconfig
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

關於/etc/ld.so.conf:
這個文件記錄瞭編譯時使用的動態鏈接庫的路徑。
默認情況下,編譯器隻會使用/lib和/usr/lib這兩個目錄下的庫文件
將自己可能存放庫文件的路徑都加入到/etc/ld.so.conf中是明智的選擇
添加方法也極其簡單,將庫文件的絕對路徑直接寫進去就OK瞭,一行一個。例如:
/usr/X11R6/lib
/usr/local/lib
/opt/lib

ldconfig是什麼?
它是一個程式,通常它位於/sbin下,供root用戶使用。它的作用就是將/etc/ld.so.conf列出的路徑下的庫文件 緩存到/etc/ld.so.cache 以供使用,因此當安裝完一些庫文件,或者修改ld.so.conf增加新的庫路徑後,需要運行一下/sbin/ldconfig,使所有的庫文件都被緩存到ld.so.cache中,如果沒做,即使庫文件明明就在/usr/lib下的,也是不會被使用的,結果編譯過程中報錯,缺少xxx庫。 切記改動庫文件後一定要運行一下ldconfig,在任何目錄下運行都可以。
2、編譯安裝MySQL 5.5.3-m3
/usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
/usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql
tar zxvf mysql-5.5.3-m3.tar.gz
cd mysql-5.5.3-m3/
./configure –prefix=/home/pubsrc/mysql/ –enable-assembler –with-extra-charsets=complex –enable-thread-safe-client –with-big-tables –with-readline –with-ssl –with-embedded-server –enable-local-infile –with-plugins=partition,innobase,myisammrg
make && make install
chmod +w /home/pubsrc/mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /home/pubsrc/mysql/
cd ../
  ①、創建MySQL伺服器存放目錄
mkdir -p /home/pubsrc/mysql/data/
mkdir -p /home/pubsrc/mysql/logs/binlog/
mkdir -p /home/pubsrc/mysql/logs/relaylog/
chown -R mysql:mysql /home/pubsrc/mysql/
②、以mysql用戶帳號的身份建立數據表:
/home/pubsrc/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db –basedir=/home/pubsrc/mysql –datadir=/home/pubsrc/mysql/data –user=mysql
③、創建my.cnf配置文件:
vi /home/pubsrc/mysql/my.cnf
輸入以下內容:
[client]
#character-set-server = utf8
port = 3306
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
#character-set-server = utf8
replicate-ignore-db = mysql
replicate-ignore-db = test
replicate-ignore-db = information_schema
user = mysql
port = 3306
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock
basedir = /home/pubsrc/mysql
datadir = /home/pubsrc/mysql/data
log-error = /home/pubsrc/mysql/logs/mysql_error.log
pid-file = /home/pubsrc/mysql/mysql.pid
open_files_limit = 10240
back_log = 600
max_connections = 5000
max_connect_errors = 6000
table_cache = 614
external-locking = FALSE
max_allowed_packet = 32M
sort_buffer_size = 1M
join_buffer_size = 1M
thread_cache_size = 300
#thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 512M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
default-storage-engine = MyISAM
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED
tmp_table_size = 246M
max_heap_table_size = 246M
long_query_time = 3
log-slave-updates
log-bin = /home/pubsrc/mysql/logs/binlog
binlog_cache_size = 4M
binlog_format = MIXED
max_binlog_cache_size = 8M
max_binlog_size = 1G
relay-log-index = /home/pubsrc/mysql/logs/relaylog
relay-log-info-file = /home/pubsrc/mysql/logs/relaylog
relay-log = /home/pubsrc/mysql/logs/relaylog
expire_logs_days = 30
key_buffer_size = 256M
read_buffer_size = 1M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 16M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover

interactive_timeout = 120
wait_timeout = 120

skip-name-resolve
#master-connect-retry = 10
slave-skip-errors = 1032,1062,126,1114,1146,1048,1396

#master-host = 192.168.1.2
#master-user = username
#master-password = password
#master-port = 3306

server-id = 1

innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 512M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:256M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 4
innodb_thread_concurrency = 8
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
innodb_file_per_table = 0

#log-slow-queries = /home/pubsrc/mysql/logs/slow.log
#long_query_time = 10

[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 32M

④、創建管理MySQL伺服器的shell腳本:
vi /home/pubsrc/mysql/mysql
#!/bin/sh
mysql_port=3306
mysql_username=”admin”
mysql_password=”12345678″

function_start_mysql()
{
printf “Starting MySQL…\n”
/bin/sh /home/pubsrc/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe –defaults-file=/home/pubsrc/mysql/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &
}

function_stop_mysql()
{
printf “Stoping MySQL…\n”
/home/pubsrc/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /tmp/mysql.sock shutdown
}

function_restart_mysql()
{
printf “Restarting MySQL…\n”
function_stop_mysql
sleep 5
function_start_mysql
}

function_kill_mysql()
{
kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep ‘bin/mysqld_safe’ | grep ${mysql_port} | awk ‘{printf $2}’)
kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep ‘libexec/mysqld’ | grep ${mysql_port} | awk ‘{printf $2}’)
}

if [ “$1” = “start” ]; then
function_start_mysql
elif [ “$1” = “stop” ]; then
function_stop_mysql
elif [ “$1” = “restart” ]; then
function_restart_mysql
elif [ “$1” = “kill” ]; then
function_kill_mysql
else
printf “Usage: /data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/mysql {start|stop|restart|kill}\n”
fi
⑤、賦予shell腳本可執行權限:
chmod +x /home/pubsrc/mysql/mysql
⑥、啟動MySQL:
/home/pubsrc/mysql/mysql start
⑦、通過命令行登錄管理MySQL伺服器(提示輸入密碼時直接回車):
/home/pubsrc/mysql/bin/mysql -u admin -p -S /tmp/mysql.sock
⑧、輸入以下SQL語句,創建一個具有root權限的用戶(admin)和密碼(12345678):
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO ‘admin’@’localhost’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘12345678’;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO ‘admin’@’127.0.0.1’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘12345678’;
⑨、(可選)停止MySQL:
/home/pubsrc/mysql/mysql stop
3、編譯安裝PHP(FastCGI模式)
tar zxvf php-5.2.14.tar.gz
gzip -cd php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.14 -p1
cd php-5.2.14/

./configure –prefix=/home/pubsrc/php –with-config-file-path=/home/pubsrc/php/etc –with-mysql=/home/pubsrc/mysql –with-mysqli=//home/pubsrc/mysql/bin/mysql_config –with-iconv-dir=/usr/local –with-freetype-dir –with-jpeg-dir –with-png-dir –with-zlib
–with-libxml-dir=/usr –enable-xml –disable-rpath –enable-discard-path –enable-safe-mode –enable-bcmath –enable-shmop –enable-sysvsem –enable-inline-optimization –with-curl –with-curlwrappers –enable-mbregex –enable-fastcgi –enable-fpm –enable-force-cgi-redirect
–enable-mbstring –with-mcrypt –with-gd –enable-gd-native-ttf –with-openssl –with-mhash –enable-pcntl –enable-sockets –with-ldap –with-ldap-sasl –with-xmlrpc –enable-zip –enable-soap –without-pear

make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS=’-liconv’
make install
cp php.ini-dist /home/pubsrc/php/etc/php.ini
cd ../
4、編譯安裝PHP5擴展模塊
tar zxvf memcache-2.2.5.tgz
cd memcache-2.2.5/
/home/pubsrc/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/home/pubsrc/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.6.1/
/home/pubsrc/php/bin/phpize
./configure –enable-eaccelerator=shared –with-php-config=/home/pubsrc/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/
/home/pubsrc/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/home/pubsrc/php/bin/php-config –with-pdo-mysql=/home/pubsrc/mysql
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf ImageMagick.tar.gz
cd ImageMagick-6.5.1-2/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf imagick-2.3.0.tgz
cd imagick-2.3.0/
/home/pubsrc/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/home/pubsrc/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../
5、修改php.ini文件
  手工修改:查找/home/pubsrc/php/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = “./”
  修改為extension_dir = “/home/pubsrc/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/”
  並在此行後增加以下幾行,然後保存:
   extension = “memcache.so”
   extension = “pdo_mysql.so”
   extension = “imagick.so”

   再查找output_buffering = Off
   修改為output_buffering = On

   再查找; cgi.fix_pathinfo=0
   修改為cgi.fix_pathinfo=0,防止Nginx文件類型錯誤解析漏洞。

   自動修改:若嫌手工修改麻煩,可執行以下shell命令,自動完成對php.ini文件的修改:
sed -i ‘s#extension_dir = “./”#extension_dir = “/home/pubsrc/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/”\nextension = “memcache.so”\nextension = “pdo_mysql.so”\nextension = “imagick.so”\n#’ /home/pubsrc/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i ‘s#output_buffering = Off#output_buffering = On#’ /home/pubsrc/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i “s#; always_populate_raw_post_data = On#always_populate_raw_post_data = On#g” /home/pubsrc/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i “s#; cgi.fix_pathinfo=0#cgi.fix_pathinfo=0#g” /home/pubsrc/php/etc/php.ini
6、配置eAccelerator加速PHP:
mkdir -p /home/pubsrc/eaccelerator_cache
vi /home/pubsrc/php/etc/php.ini
按shift+g鍵跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:
[eaccelerator]
zend_extension=”/home/pubsrc/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so”
eaccelerator.shm_size=”64″
eaccelerator.cache_dir=”/home/pubsrc/eaccelerator_cache”
eaccelerator.enable=”1″
eaccelerator.optimizer=”1″
eaccelerator.check_mtime=”1″
eaccelerator.debug=”0″
eaccelerator.filter=””
eaccelerator.shm_max=”0″
eaccelerator.shm_ttl=”3600″
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period=”3600″
eaccelerator.shm_only=”0″
eaccelerator.compress=”1″
eaccelerator.compress_level=”9″
7、創建www用戶和組,以及供blog.test.com和www.test.com兩個虛擬主機使用的目錄:
/usr/sbin/groupadd www
/usr/sbin/useradd -g www www
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/blog
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/blog
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/blog
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/www
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/www
 8、創建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是為PHP打的一個FastCGI管理補丁,可以平滑變更php.ini配置而無需重啟php-cgi):
  在/home/pubsrc/php/etc/目錄中創建php-fpm.conf文件:
rm -f /home/pubsrc/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vi /home/pubsrc/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
輸入以下內容(如果您安裝 Nginx + PHP 用於程式調試,請將以下的0改為1,以便顯示PHP錯誤信息,否則,Nginx 會報狀態為500的空白錯誤頁):

All relative paths in this config are relative to php’s install prefix

Pid file
/home/pubsrc/php/logs/php-fpm.pid

Error log file
/home/pubsrc/php/logs/php-fpm.log

Log level
notice

When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS …
10

… in a less than this interval of time, a graceful restart will be initiated.
Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator’s shared memory.
1m

Time limit on waiting child’s reaction on signals from master
5s

Set to ‘no’ to debug fpm
yes

Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.
default

Address to accept fastcgi requests on.
Valid syntax is ‘ip.ad.re.ss:port’ or just ‘port’ or ‘/path/to/unix/socket’
127.0.0.1:9000

Set listen(2) backlog
-1

Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.
In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow connections from web server.
Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.

0666

Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.

/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i
1

Unix user of processes
www

Unix group of processes
www

Process manager settings

Sets style of controling worker process count.
Valid values are ‘static’ and ‘apache-like’
static

Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.
Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.
Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi
Used with any pm_style.
128

Settings group for ‘apache-like’ pm style

Sets the number of server processes created on startup.
Used only when ‘apache-like’ pm_style is selected
20

Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.
Used only when ‘apache-like’ pm_style is selected
5

Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.
Used only when ‘apache-like’ pm_style is selected
35

The timeout (in seconds) for serving a single request after which the worker process will be terminated
Should be used when ‘max_execution_time’ ini option does not stop script execution for some reason
‘0s’ means ‘off’
0s

The timeout (in seconds) for serving of single request after which a php backtrace will be dumped to slow.log file
‘0s’ means ‘off’
0s

The log file for slow requests
logs/slow.log

Set open file desc rlimit
65535

Set max core size rlimit
0

Chroot to this directory at the start, absolute path

Chdir to this directory at the start, absolute path

Redirect workers’ stdout and stderr into main error log.
If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs
yes

How much requests each process should execute before respawn.
Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.
For endless request processing please specify 0
Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS
102400

Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.
Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)
Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.
127.0.0.1

Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH
All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment

$HOSTNAME
/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
/tmp
/tmp
/tmp
$OSTYPE
$MACHTYPE
2

9、啟動php-cgi進程,監聽127.0.0.1的9000端口,進程數為128(如果伺服器內存小於3GB,可以隻開啟64個進程),用戶為www:
ulimit -SHn 65535
/home/pubsrc/php/sbin/php-fpm start
註:/home/pubsrc/php/sbin/php-fpm還有其他參數,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini後不重啟php-cgi,重新加載配置文件使用reload。
三、安裝Nginx 0.8.46
  1、安裝Nginx所需的pcre庫:
tar zxvf pcre-8.10.tar.gz
cd pcre-8.10/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../
2、安裝Nginx
tar zxvf nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.8.46/
./configure –user=www –group=www –prefix=/home/pubsrc/nginx –with-http_stub_status_module –with-http_ssl_module
make && make install
cd ../
3、創建Nginx日志目錄
mkdir -p /data1/logs
chmod +w /data1/logs
chown -R www:www /data1/logs
4、創建Nginx配置文件
  ①、在/home/pubsrc/nginx/conf/目錄中創建nginx.conf文件:
rm -f /home/pubsrc/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vi /home/pubsrc/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
輸入以下內容:
user www www;

worker_processes 8;

error_log /home/pubsrc/nginx/logs/nginx_error.log crit;

pid /home/pubsrc/nginx/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 65535;

events
{
use epoll;
worker_connections 65535;
}

http
{
include mime.types;
default_type application/octet-stream;

#charset gb2312;

server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
client_header_buffer_size 32k;
large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
client_max_body_size 8m;

sendfile on;
tcp_nopush on;

keepalive_timeout 60;

tcp_nodelay on;

fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;

gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1k;
gzip_buffers 4 16k;
gzip_http_version 1.0;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
gzip_vary on;

#limit_zone crawler $binary_remote_addr 10m;
server
{
listen 4590;
server_name www.inner.bbs.com;
index index.html index.htm index.php;
root /home/wwwroot/bbs;

#limit_conn crawler 20;

location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
{
#fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
fastcgi_index index.php;
include fcgi.conf;
}

location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)?$
{
expires 30d;
}

location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
{
expires 1h;
}

log_format access ‘$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] “$request” ‘
‘$status $body_bytes_sent “$http_referer” ‘
‘”$http_user_agent” $http_x_forwarded_for’;
access_log /home/pubsrc/nginx/logs/access.log access;
}

server
{
listen 4591;
server_name www.inner.uc.com;
index index.html index.htm index.php;
root /data/wwwroot/uc;

location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
{
#fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
fastcgi_index index.php;
include fcgi.conf;
}

log_format wwwlogs ‘$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] “$request” ‘
‘$status $body_bytes_sent “$http_referer” ‘
‘”$http_user_agent” $http_x_forwarded_for’;
access_log /home/pubsrc/nginx/logs/wwwlogs.log wwwlogs;
}
}
②、在/home/pubsrc/nginx/conf/目錄中創建fcgi.conf文件:
vi /home/pubsrc/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf
輸入以下內容:
fastcgi_param GATEWAY_INTERFACE CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param SERVER_SOFTWARE nginx;

fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_METHOD $request_method;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_TYPE $content_type;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_LENGTH $content_length;

fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_URI $request_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_URI $document_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_ROOT $document_root;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PROTOCOL $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param REMOTE_PORT $remote_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_ADDR $server_addr;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PORT $server_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_NAME $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with –enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param REDIRECT_STATUS 200;
5、啟動Nginx
ulimit -SHn 65535
/home/pubsrc/nginx/sbin/nginx
四、配置開機自動啟動Nginx + PHP
vi /etc/rc.local
在末尾增加以下內容:
ulimit -SHn 65535
/home/pubsrc/php/sbin/php-fpm start
/home/pubsrc/nginx/sbin/nginx
五、優化Linux內核參數
vi /etc/sysctl.conf
在末尾增加以下內容:
# Add
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 65536
net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 32768
net.core.somaxconn = 32768

net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216

net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2

net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
#net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1

net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800

#net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
#net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 120
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65535
使配置立即生效:
/sbin/sysctl -p
六、在不停止Nginx服務的情況下平滑變更Nginx配置
  1、修改/home/pubsrc/nginx/conf/nginx.conf配置文件後,請執行以下命令檢查配置文件是否正確:
/home/pubsrc/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
如果屏幕顯示以下兩行信息,說明配置文件正確:
   the configuration file /home/pubsrc/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
   the configuration file /home/pubsrc/nginx/conf/nginx.conf was tested successfully

  2、平滑重啟:
   ①、對於Nginx 0.8.x版本,現在平滑重啟Nginx配置非常簡單,執行以下命令即可:
/home/pubsrc/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload
②、對於Nginx 0.8.x之前的版本,平滑重啟稍微麻煩一些,按照以下步驟進行即可。輸入以下命令查看Nginx主進程號:
ps -ef | grep “nginx: master process” | grep -v “grep” | awk -F ‘ ‘ ‘{print $2}’
  屏幕顯示的即為Nginx主進程號,例如:
   6302
   這時,執行以下命令即可使修改過的Nginx配置文件生效:
kill -HUP 6302
或者無需這麼麻煩,找到Nginx的Pid文件:
kill -HUP `cat /home/pubsrc/nginx/nginx.pid`
七、編寫每天定時切割Nginx日志的腳本
  1、創建腳本/home/pubsrc/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
vi /home/pubsrc/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
  輸入以下內容:
#!/bin/bash
# This script run at 00:00

# The Nginx logs path
logs_path=”/home/pubsrc/nginx/logs/”

mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d “yesterday” +”%Y”)/$(date -d “yesterday” +”%m”)/
mv ${logs_path}access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d “yesterday” +”%Y”)/$(date -d “yesterday” +”%m”)/access_$(date -d “yesterday” +”%Y%m%d”).log
kill -USR1 `cat /home/pubsrc/nginx/nginx.pid`
2、設置crontab,每天凌晨00:00切割nginx訪問日志
crontab –e
輸入以下內容:
00 00 * * * /bin/bash /home/pubsrc/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

開啟php.ini中的cgi.fix_pathinfo=0,防止Nginx文件類型錯誤解析漏洞。
3,創建nginx啟東腳本
vi nginxctl
輸入一下內容
#!/bin/bash

BIN=/home/pubsrc/nginx/sbin/nginx
PID=/home/pubsrc/nginx/nginx.pid
case $1 in
start)
$BIN -c /home/pubsrc/nginx/conf/nginx.conf;
exit $?;
;;
stop)
kill $(cat $PID);
exit $?;
;;
reload)
kill -HUP $(cat $PID);
exit $?;
;;
rotate)
kill -USR1 $(cat $PID);
exit $?;
;;
port)
echo “Your port is $(( 4000 + $(id -u) ))”;
;;
*)
echo “Usage: $0 {start|stop|reload|roate|port}”;
exit 1;
esac
最後賦予可執行權限
chmod 777 nginxctl

CentOS系統上CentOS Memcached安裝。
1.CentOS Memcached安裝前需要先安裝Libevent:
# curl -O https://www.monkey.org/~provos/libevent-1.4.9-stable.tar.gz
# tar zxf libevent-1.4.9-stable.tar.gz
# cd libevent-1.4.9-stable
# ./configure
# make
# make install
2.繼續CentOS Memcached安裝:
# curl -O https://www.danga.com/memcached/dist/memcached-1.2.7.tar.gz
# tar zxf memcached-1.2.7.tar.gz
# cd memcached-1.2.7
# ./configure
# make
# make install
3.CentOS Memcached安裝接著在當前用戶的.bash_profile中添加
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:/usr/local/lib
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
4.CentOS Memcached運行
# memcached -m 512 -u nobody -vv
測試時候發現會出現以下錯誤信息:
“/usr/local/memcached/bin/memcached: error while loading shared libraries: libevent-1.4.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory”
錯誤的原因是未在系統中註冊Libevent. 解決方法如下:
# vi /etc/ld.so.conf.d/libevent-i386.conf
在VI中輸入以下一行內容:
/usr/local/lib/
最後不要忘瞭
# ldconfig
5.CentOS Memcached運行
# memcached -m 512 -u nobody -vv
<6 server listening
<7 server listening
<8 send buffer was 109568, now 268435456
<8 server listening (udp)
<9 send buffer was 109568, now 268435456
<9 server listening (udp)
CentOS Memcached運行正常。
以上介紹CentOS Memcached安裝及運行檢測。

1、啟動Memcache 常用參數
-p 設置端口號(默認不設置為: 11211)
-U UDP監聽端口(默認: 11211, 0 時關閉)
-l 綁定地址(默認:所有都允許,無論內外網或者本機更換IP,有安全隱患,若設置為127.0.0.1就隻能本機訪問)
-d 獨立進程運行
-u 綁定使用指定用於運行進程
-m 允許最大內存用量,單位M (默認: 64 MB)
-P 將PID寫入文件,這樣可以使得後邊進行快速進程終止, 需要與-d 一起使用


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